Schools and Educational Systems

Singapore: Primary (PSLE).Secondary and JC GCE O/NA/NT/A. IB




Curricular Models: P21

<4 Domains and areas Curriculum Based on P21 Framework>



Basic Disciplines

English, reading or language arts

World languages







Government and Civics


Global awareness

Financial, economic, business and entrepreneurial literacy

Civic literacy

Health literacy

Environmental literacy

Learning and Innovation Skills: Learning and innovation skills increasingly are being recognized as the skills that separate students who are prepared for increasingly complex life and work environments in the 21st century, and those who are not. A focus on creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration is essential to prepare students for the future.

Creativity and Innovation

Think Creatively

Use a wide range of idea creation techniques (such as brainstorming)

Create new and worthwhile ideas (both incremental and radical concepts)

Elaborate, refine, analyze and evaluate their own ideas in order to improve and maximize creative efforts

Work Creatively with Others

Develop, implement and communicate new ideas to others effectively

Be open and responsive to new and diverse perspectives; incorporate group input and feedback into the work

Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work and understand the real world limits to adopting new ideas

View failure as an opportunity to learn; understand that creativity and innovation is a long-term, cyclical process of small successes and frequent mistakes

Implement Innovations

Act on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the field in which the innovation will occur

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

Reason Effectively

Use various types of reasoning (inductive, deductive, etc.) as appropriate to the situation

Use Systems Thinking

Analyze how parts of a whole interact with each other to produce overall outcomes in complex systems

Make Judgments and Decisions

Effectively analyze and evaluate evidence, arguments, claims and beliefs

Analyze and evaluate major alternative points of view

Synthesize and make connections between information and arguments

Interpret information and draw conclusions based on the best analysis

Reflect critically on learning experiences and processes

Solve Problems

Solve different kinds of non-familiar problems in both conventional and innovative ways

Identify and ask significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutions

Communication and Collaboration

Communicate Clearly

Articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts

Listen effectively to decipher meaning, including knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions

Use communication for a range of purposes (e.g. to inform, instruct, motivate and persuade)

Utilize multiple media and technologies, and know how to judge their effectiveness a priori as well as assess their impact

Communicate effectively in diverse environments (including multi-lingual)

Collaborate with Others

Demonstrate ability to work effectively and respectfully with diverse teams

Exercise flexibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal

Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work, and value the individual contributions made by each team member

Information, Media and Technology Skills: People in the 21st century live in a technology and media-suffused environment, marked by various characteristics, including: 1) access to an abundance of information, 2) rapid changes in technology tools, and 3) the ability to collaborate and make individual contributions on an unprecedented scale. To be effective in the 21st century, citizens and workers must be able to exhibit a range of functional and critical thinking skills related to information, media and technology.

Information Literacy

Access and Evaluate Information

Access information efficiently (time) and effectively (sources)

Evaluate information critically and competently

Use and Manage Information

Use information accurately and creatively for the issue or problem at hand

Manage the flow of information from a wide variety of sources

Apply a fundamental understanding of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of information

Media Literacy

Analyze Media

Understand both how and why media messages are constructed, and for what purposes

Examine how individuals interpret messages differently, how values and points of view are included or excluded, and how media can influence beliefs and behaviors

Apply a fundamental understanding of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of media

Create Media Products

Understand and utilize the most appropriate media creation tools, characteristics and conventions

Understand and effectively utilize the most appropriate expressions and interpretations in diverse, multi-cultural environments

ICT Literacy

Apply Technology Effectively

Use technology as a tool to research, organize, evaluate and communicate information

Use digital technologies (computers, PDAs, media players, GPS, etc.), communication/networking tools and social networks appropriately to access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information to successfully function in a knowledge economy

Apply a fundamental understanding of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of information technologies

Life and Career Skills: Today’s life and work environments require far more than thinking skills and content knowledge. The ability to navigate the complex life and work environments in the globally competitive information age requires students to pay rigorous attention to developing adequate life and career skills.


Adapt to Change

Adapt to varied roles, jobs responsibilities, schedules and context

Work effectively in a climate of ambiguity and changing priorities

Be Flexible

Incorporate feedback effectively

Deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism

Understand, negotiate and balance diverse views and beliefs to reach workable solutions, particularly in multi-cultural environments


Manage Goals and Time

Set goals with tangible and intangible success criteria

Balance tactical (short-term) and strategic (long-term) goals

Utilize time and manage workload efficiently

Work Independently

Monitor, define, prioritize and complete tasks without direct oversight

Be Self-directed Learners

Go beyond basic mastery of skills and/or curriculum to explore and expand one’s own learning and opportunities to gain expertise

Demonstrate initiative to advance skill levels towards a professional level

Demonstrate commitment to learning as a lifelong process

Reflect critically on past experiences in order to inform future progress


Interact Effectively with Others

Know when it is appropriate to listen and when to speak

Conduct themselves in a respectable, professional manner

Work Effectively in Diverse Teams

Respect cultural differences and work effectively with people from a range of social and cultural backgrounds

Respond open-mindedly to different ideas and values

Leverage social and cultural differences to create new ideas and increase both innovation and quality of work


Manage Projects

Set and meet goals, even in the face of obstacles and competing pressure

Prioritize, plan and manage work to achieve the intended result

Produce Results

Demonstrate additional attributes associated with producing high quality products including the abilities to:

Work positively and ethically

Manage time and projects effectively


Participate actively, as well as be reliable and punctual

Present oneself professionally and with proper etiquette

Collaborate and cooperate effectively with teams

Respect and appreciate team diversity

Be accountable for results


Guide and Lead Others

Use interpersonal and problem-solving skills to influence and guide others toward a goal

Leverage strengths of others to accomplish a common goal

Inspire others to reach their very best via example and selflessnes

Demonstrate integrity and ethical behavior in using influence and power

Be Responsible to Others

Act responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind